The St. Eutychus Guide to First Year Greek – Part Eight

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are like pointing at something. If there is a table in the room and I want to draw attention to it – I’d say “this table.” If, however, the table is outside the room I’d say “that table”… we all know the difference between this and that instinctively – but I hadn’t really analysed this instinct before in terms of proximity…

This in Greek is αυτος. At least in the masculine nominative singular. There are a couple of grounds for confusion in the below declensions because I’m not typing accents… αυτη is both the feminine nominative singular demonstrative pronoun this (woman – if used substantively) and the feminine nominative singular personal pronoun – the only difference is in the accenting.

Masculine

Singular

  • N: ουτος
  • G: τουτου
  • D: τουτῳ
  • A: τουτον

Plural

  • N: ουτοι
  • G: τουτων
  • D: τουτοις
  • A: τουτους

Feminine

Singular

  • N: αυτη
  • G: ταυτης
  • D: ταυτῃ
  • A: ταυτην

Plural

  • N: αυται
  • G: τουτων
  • D: τουταις
  • A: τουτας

Neuter

Singular

  • N: τουτο
  • G: τουτου
  • D: τουτῳ
  • A: τουτο

Plural

  • N: ταυτα
  • G: τουτων
  • D: τουτοις
  • A: ταυτα

The nominative singular and plural masculine and feminine all being with rough breathing.

For more remote objects the demonstrative pronoun is εκεινος (that). Its declension is identical to αυτος.

Masculine

Singular

  • N: εκεινος
  • G: εκεινου
  • D: εκεινῳ
  • A: εκεινον

Plural

  • N: εκεινοι
  • G: εκεινων
  • D: εκεινοις
  • A: εκεινους

Feminine

Singular

  • N: εκεινη
  • G: εκεινης
  • D: εκεινῃ
  • A: εκεινην

Plural

  • N: εκειναι
  • G: εκεινων
  • D: εκειναις
  • A: εκεινας

Neuter

Singular

  • N: εκεινο
  • G: εκεινου
  • D: εκεινῳ
  • A: εκεινο

Plural

  • N: εκεινα
  • G: εκεινων
  • D: εκεινοις
  • A: εκεινα

Uses of the Demonstrative

There are three main uses of the demonstrative:

  1. To modify a noun. In this instance the pronoun agrees with the noun in gender, number, and case. The noun in this instance is always definite, and the pronoun sits in the predicate position. The syntax is therefore: pronoun + article + noun. λεγω τουτοις τοις ανθροποις is “I speak to these men.”
  2. Substantive Use – they carry their own noun based on case. So αυτος is “this man” or “this person” when there is no other noun to work with… eg ουτος βλασφημει = This man is blaspheming. If the noun is not definite (ie doesn’t have an article) the demonstrative does not modify the noun. So ουτος κλεπτης εστιν και λῃστης is “that man is a thief and a robber” not “that thief and a robber”
  3. Can function as personal pronouns if they immediately follow a proper noun – in which case they are translated he, she, or they.

Present Middle and Passive Indicative

All our verbs up until now have been active indicative – the subject has been doing the action. Greek has a middle voice – where the subject acts for its own interest, and a passive voice, where the subject receives the action of the verb.

So the passive of “I release” is “I am being released,” or “I am released.”

The forms of the passive and the middle are identical. And only context determines which one is used.

The forms of the present middle and passive indicative are:

  • First person singular = λυομαι
  • Second person singular = λυῃ
  • Third person singular = λυεται
  • First person plural = λυομεθα
  • Second person plural = λυεσθε
  • Third person plural = λυονται

The Middle Voice

The middle voice can be translated as “I am releasing myself,” or “I am releasing for myself,” or “I myself am releasing.

The middle has three uses:

  1. The reflexive middle – refers the result of the verb directly to the subject “Judas hanged himself” in the Greek does not have the word “himself.”
  2. The intensive middle – emphasises the agent’s role in the action – “he himself secured eternal redemption” – once again, the “himself” comes from the verb.
  3. The reciprocal middle – is the use of a plural subject engaged in an interchange of action. I don’t really get this one, but apparently it’s as rare as hen’s teeth.

Deponent Verbs

Deponent verbs are verbs that have middle or passive forms but that have lost their active form. The middle/passive verb has taken the active verb’s place, eg ερχομαι means “I go,” it is middle in form but active in meaning.

Deponent verbs tend to involve:

  1. Reciprocity – Describe situations that require two parties (eg I redeem, Ι welcome).
  2. Reflexivity – The verbal idea turns back on the subject (eg I imitate, I put on, I abstain).
  3. Self-involvement – Describe processes that only the subject can experience (eg I ponder, I consider, I go)

In some verbs the active form has one meaning and the deponent another – αρχω means “I rule” but αρχομαι means “I begin” – these are rare.

A lot of deponent verbs form compound verbs with prepositions.

Agency

A verb in the passive voice will often come with an agent – the person or thing producing the action.

  1. The direct agent (the agent by whom the action is performed) is expressed by υπο and a genitive noun.
  2. The intermediate agent (through whom the action is performed) is expressed by δια and the genitive
  3. Impersonal agency (an action being performed by or through a non-person) – is expressed by the dative case (sometimes with εν).
  4. The divine passive occurs when no agent is expressed to avoid naming God directly (eg “they will be comforted [by God]”)

Vocab and Memory Hooks

  • εκεινος = (ekeinos) that
  • ουτος = (houtos) this
  • αμνος = (amnos) Lamb = An l-amnos is a little lamb
  • αρτος = (artos) bread = Good bread is art
  • διαβολος (diabolos) devil = El Diablos is the Spanish devil
  • εχθρος = (exthros) enemy =
  • ηλιος = (helios) sun = there used to be a heliocentric view of the world, the idea that the earth
  • θρονος = (thronos) throne = I sit my bottomos on the thronos
  • καιρος = (kairos) time = I’ve got nothing
  • καρπος = (karpos) fruit = karpos are not fish, but fruit
  • λαος = (laos) people = The people of laos are friendly people
  • ναος = (naos) temple = Jews say “temple” we say “naos”
  • ουρανος = (ouranos) heaven = Uranus is in the heavens.
  • οφθαλμος = (ophthalmos) eye = When my eyes aren’t working I go to see the ophthalmologist.
  • Πετρος = (Petros) Peter: The apostle.
  • σταυρος = (stauros) cross = The southern cross is four stars that make a stauros.
  • τοπος = (topos) place = If you win first place you’re on topos the world.
  • τυφλος = (tuphlos) blindman = If something pokes out your eyes it’s a tuph-los and you’ll be a blindman
  • φιλος = (filos) friend = Philos
  • φοβος = (phobos) = phobia.
  • χρονος = (chronos) time = Time passes chronoslogically.
  • βιβλιον = (biblion) books = Bibliographies are lists of books
  • δαιμονιον = (daimonion) demon = sounds like what it is
  • ιματιον = (Imation) cloak/garment = I wear my cloak Imation the latest fashions
  • μυστηριον = (musterion) mystery = It’s a musterion to me.
  • παιδιον = (paidion) child = You don’t paidion children very much to work
  • πλοιον = (ploion) boat = Pirates make their ploys on a boat.
  • σαββατον = (sabbaton) Sabbath = It sounds like what it is
  • σημειον = (semeion) sign = Apparently semantics is meant to remind you of signs…
  • αρχω = (arxo) I rule (takes a genitive) = Noah ruled the arxo
  • υπαρχω = (uparxo) I am, I exist = I have nothing…

Deponent Verbs (I can’t think of hooks for these yet)

  • δεχομαι = I welcome
  • λυτροομαι = I redeem
  • χαριζομαι = I forgive
  • ιαομαι = I heal
  • μαχομαι = I fight
  • ψευδομαι = I lie
  • ασπαζομαι = I greet
  • αποκρινομαι = I answer (takes the dative)
  • τυφλοομαι = I am conceited
  • επενδουμαι = I put on
  • μιμεομαι = I imitate
  • εκρατευομαι = I abstain
  • ερχομαι = I go
  • διαλογιζομαι = I ponder
  • ηγεομαι = I consider
  • οργιζομαι = I am angry
  • βουλομαι = I wish
  • λογιζομαι = I consider
  • αρχομαι = I begin
  • γινομαι = I become (takes a complement)
  • εκπορευομαι = I come out, I go out
  • εργαζομαι = I work
  • ευαγγελιζομαι = I preach the gospel
  • πορευομαι = I come
  • προσευχομαι = I pray
  • ερχομαι = I come
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